Category: <span>Industrial Engineering </span>

The Scientific Side of Permanent Markers

For a lot of professionals who use permanent markers or “Sharpie,” one of the biggest questions is how this thing works. Why are these permanent markers staying permanently? The science behind this technological marvel, usually overlooked, involves three main ingredients: resin, carrier, and colorant. With the right combinations, these ingredients make “Sharpie” or permanent marker work.

Definition

While its definition sounds pretty obvious, it is not. Usually, these markers need to meet two qualifications to be considered as a permanent marker: it needs to use pigments or dyes, and it needs to adhere to all surfaces, as well as water-resistant.

According to experts, writing using this device can be expected to last at least three to four months, and several years at most. Although people might use this every day, there is a big chance that people are hard-pressed to explain how it works. This device contains common ingredients that make up regular markers.

These components dictate how the device interact to deliver a clean and reliable line. Always remember that its lasting effect is usually a misnomer as most devices labeled as everlasting are not light-fast unless it is marked explicitly by manufacturers as archival markers.

How inks are made? Check out this site for more info.

What do these things consist of?

These pens are hallowed plastic tubes that are airtight, with a single opening at its tip. These tubes encase a long stick of sponge-like and porous material, which sticks slightly out of its opening (also called the tip). The absorbent material inside is saturated with permanent ink as it drains or evaporates from the exposed tip. Its siphoning effect will draw the fluid from the inside, out of its tip. The ink is composed of three ingredients: resin, solvent, and colorant.

Colorant

Colorants are pigments or dyes that give these fluids its unique color. Whether pink, yellow, neon, red, blue, black, or any other hue, colorants is what we see when we look at lines made by the device. The main difference between pigments and dyes is that pigments are usually water-insoluble or a non-polar solvent, while dyes are water-soluble.

The pigment is a non-polar solvent unless it is ground to very fine dust. Because of the powder’s property, they are usually the favored colorant choice for these devices, given their resistance to humidity dissolution and other environmental agents.

Solvent

This is the key to making an excellent broad, felt-tip pens; without the solvent to transport and dissolve colorant, as well as the ink resin through the small sponge, these pens will not work. Although water is a polar solvent, these solvents need to be non-polar to break down resins and colorants, which are usually non-polar.

Traditionally, manufacturers use xylene, but because of health hazards, they switched to lesser toxic component like isopropanol and ethanol, since children are starting to use these items for school-related activities. Once the liquid ink us applied to the surface, solvents automatically evaporate, leaving only the resin and colorant.

Resin

These are glue-like polymer. Inks made of resin make sure that the colorant sticks to the surface once the it evaporates. If the ink is only made of solvent and colorant, the colorant will turn to powder and fall on the surface as soon as the solvent component evaporated or dried. While ink made of this component is naturally very sticky, the solvent will keep it fluid and free inside the sealed plastic tube.

Differences

The difference between non-permanent and permanent market rest on its resin component; broad, felt-tip pen has resins that non-polar. It does not dissolve in water. That is why, if the ink with a non-polar component gets on a surface, it will stay there permanently. But if you use chemicals like acetone, a non-polar solvent, instead of water, it will dissolve the resin and remove the mark.

On the other hand, non-permanent ones use ink made with resin that is water-soluble or readily dissolves in water. Not only that, but permanent markers may also use specific dyes and pigments that are not water-soluble or do not dissolve easily in water.

Removal

While removing these ink sounds like very contradicting, there are ways to remove it. Non-solvent chemicals like acetone, as well as alcohol, will remove it from both porous and non-porous materials. A lot of household items like hair spray or deodorant contain alcohol and can be used to remove these inks.

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Tips You Must Know In Order To Become A Leader

Leadership is an admired quality that very people possess. It is not easy to be an effective leader, and many people have failed trying. It doesn’t have to be that difficult, and with the right knowledge along with a determined attitude anyone can be a good leader. Your search for great leadership tips begins in the following article below.

Use a mentor. Find someone whose leadership skills you trust, and model your behavior after theirs. Watch them for a while, and get an idea of how they lead and what makes them a good leader. You don’t want to mimic them completely, but find what works about their style and incorporate it into a style that works for you.

When you’re a leader, make sure that you team with people. You must remember that you are a part of a team. Individual voices can contribute to and better an entire project so try bringing others together to collaborate. Leaders are never alone. Do your best to invite as many perspectives into the discussion and decision-making processes as you can.

Walk the talk. Leaders don’t say one thing and do another. That is confusing to employees, and demotivating in many ways. Instead live by what you say. Follow through and lead by example. Then you’ll have more than employees, you’ll have champions who believe in your business and your leadership too.

Do what’s necessary to promote group unity. This means making sure that everyone knows what tasks they need to perform and what everyone else is doing. This prevents duplicate effort. Also, make sure each member of the team keeps the others up to date on progress. This makes budget and time overruns less likely.

Watch out for project creep. This can happen when your project’s scope isn’t clearly defined. If you have control over the project, resist the temptation to add more project objectives as time goes on. If you are receiving external pressure to expand your project, resist it with all your might. Your subordinates will thank you.

On most days, be the first in the office and the last out. This is not just about working the most hours. It’s about giving your employees the perception of work ethic. If they see you working hard, they’ll believe in you as a leader more. And with that comes real trust and a bump in productivity.

When you’re trying to be a good business leader, you’ll need to be able to make difficult decisions. When making a difficult decision, you should understand the consequences and outcome of your decision. When making a decision, you should always consider what is going to be best for your business, not just for certain people or yourself.

To truly become a great leader you need to be willing to learn. Education is key to effective leadership, and the article you just read pointed you in the right direction. Take this knowledge and use it to your advantage as you travel down the road to becoming a great leader.…

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How To Choose a Commercial Printer Maintenance Contract

While choosing the right kind of commercial printer for your business can affect efficiency and advertising success, deciding how to maintain the device can be just as vital. These printers are typically larger than personal units, have a high-volume printing capacity and may include additional features, such as the ability to scan and copy documents. If you have decided that the repair and maintenance of your office printers are best handled by a servicing company, there are a few factors you might consider before you choose a contract.

Consider the Number of Printers You Own 

If you run a small business, then you may only have one or two printers that manage all of your print media jobs. However, a repair and maintenance contract may still benefit you, especially when you consider how a printer breakdown could affect your employee’s productivity. If you own a larger business and use a variety of different printers, then you may want to choose a company that offers flexible contracts and can customize them according to your needs.

Read Reviews 

Taking the time to read printer repair and maintenance company reviews online may help you avoid overspending or wasting time contacting businesses that cannot meet your requirements. For example, if you need printer service Washington DC, you can browse reviews to gauge whether you are in a specific service area, what other companies have experienced and whether the company you choose can service your printer brand.

Gauge Repair Vs. Contract Costs 

Before you agree to a printer repair contract, you may want to review the cost of individual repair jobs versus the cost of an annual service contract. If you find that your printers need maintenance or repairs more than a few times per year, then you may want to invest in a service agreement.

When business printers break down, it can impact productivity. Having an affordable and flexible service contract in place may help you avoid extended downtime and the cost of emergency repair visits.

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Essential Metals in the Automotive Industry

It’s no secret that many various metals are involved in manufacturing auto parts. Less commonly known, though, is which specific metals are used the most and for what reasons. Whether it’s for mechanical strength, resistance to damage, weight, low costs or ease of manufacturing, there are particular metals and alloys that the industry has come to rely on.

Steel and Iron

Easy to work, inexpensive, readily available and reliably strong, steel is a staple in automobiles. The chassis and body panels of a vehicle, as well as many wheels, are frequently made of steel, not only for durability but also for flexibility—steel bends or dents under impact, absorbing kinetic energy well without breaking, which is a vital safety feature in cars and trucks. Some steel alloys have key traits besides mechanical strength that make them valuable; stainless steel, for instance, makes for corrosion-resistant bolts and exhaust pipes.

Iron is less common in modern models, usually outclassed by steel or other alloys. However, iron can be cast more readily than steel, making it useful for complex parts that need high dimensional stability.

Aluminum

Most people think of metal foil or cans when they think of aluminum, so it might surprise you to know that aluminum alloys can boast strength on par with steel. On top of that, aluminum is significantly lighter than steel, and surface treatments can make it corrosion resistant. Though working aluminum has historically been more expensive, modern advances in metalworking allow aluminum die castings to be used for a variety of auto parts, making its use more common nowadays. Still, economically speaking, aluminum remains a high-end material for many purposes.

Titanium

Titanium is considered a premium metal in the automotive industry. While it’s prohibitively expensive to work with, limiting it to high-end models, it possesses an unparalleled strength-to-density ratio along with high stiffness, corrosion and oxidation resistance and consistent performance across a wide temperature range. Luxury sports cars make use of titanium to boost toughness and remain lightweight.

The prized materials in the automotive industry have changed over time as advances in technology-enabled more economic manufacturing. As metalworking practices continue to evolve, alloys that are costly now may see wider usage in the future.…

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Solar Energy: How It Can Help The Environment And Save You Money

When it comes to solar energy, knowledge is key. It’s what will ensure your technology is the most efficient. It’s also what will keep you on budget. The more you know, the better, so read this article in full to find many great tips on using solar energy the right way.

You can have solar power even in a cloudy or cold locale. Direct sunlight isn’t necessary, nor is a particular temperature. Many people say their best solar energy days are not on days when it is perfectly sunny.

For the best results, place your solar panels in a location that gets plenty of sunlight. Avoid placing solar panels near trees or tall buildings because they can create shadows on the solar panels which can result in poor energy consumption. Additionally, placing your solar panels in a Southwest location will result in greater energy absorption.

Make sure that any solar panels you put up are actually cost effective. While the installation cost can be dented with government assistance, you need to know how long it will take for energy savings to return your investment. Also factor in that you are not likely to get the same amount of power every single month.

As you comparison shop for solar power systems, remember that not all brands were created equal. You want to go with a product that has a reputable manufacturer. It is wonderful if another brand offers a substantial warranty or a great discount, but those things won’t help you very much if the company goes out of business in a few years.

Solar energy systems allow you to cut your ties to the outside world. You can go completely off grid with one of these systems. You will not have to pay monthly fees or wonder who is watching your power use. You can increase your level of privacy while saving the environment and your money.

Look into solar powered appliances. There are a number of products that are available that are powered by solar energy. One of the most popular is the solar powered water heaters. Just having one appliance run by solar energy can save you hundreds of dollars each year in energy costs.

Consider installing more solar panels than your home will ever need. If you do this you will be doing two good things. First, you will earn money on any energy created that your home does not use. Second, you will be reducing the amount of fossil fuels burned to power the homes of your neighbors.

One major advantage of solar power is that there are a wide range of systems on the market. While there are those that are very expensive, others are quite affordable. Therefore, regardless of your income level, you can afford to set up a solar power system. You just need to do your research and figure out what product is best for you.

Solar energy is truly our friend, powering up electronics and keeping the Earth habitable by allowing us to use it sustainably. We all want to be green, and this is a great way to do it. Now that you know how to get started, all you have to do is get moving!…

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Advice On Making Solar Energy Work For Your Business Or Home

Are you wishing that you didn’t have to pay for your energy in the long run? Looking into solar energy can help you identify how that can be your future. However, it takes having the right information in your hands in order to know what to do, so keep reading to find out more.

Using solar power to heat the water you use is a terrific method of protecting the environment. You can choose from several different types of solar water tanks. They can easily be installed up on your roof to take advantage of the sun’s energy.

Position solar panels on the east or west side of your home or business. Since the sun travels from east to west throughout the day, placing solar panels on areas of your roof that face north or south is a waste. You’ll get much better energy returns by following the same path as the sun.

If you own a pool, consider using a solar water heating system to keep it warm in the cooler months. Solar heating is much less expensive than electric or even gas heating, and it is relatively easy to install. In the first year alone, you can save about thirty percent over the cost of heating your swimming pool with electricity.

Realize that solar power doesn’t need 24/7 direct sunlight. You don’t have to have direct sunlight to gain the benefits. Some people even report improved power generation on grey days.

As you prepare to buy a solar power system, don’t underestimate the importance of recommendations. Talk to everyone you know, whether they are friends, family members or even coworkers. You may be surprised by the number of people that have experience with these systems. They can tell you what they found out along their journey and guide you in the right direction.

Be careful when positioning solar panels on your home. These panels need direct sunlight, at least during the main portion of the day. If there are a lot of trees that shade the panel, you’ll reduce your overall output by a lot. Plan ahead and look at all of your placement options.

Solar heating systems use the power from the sun to help heat your home in the Winter. This type of system is a great option for locations that do not get especially cold. Using this type of system in conjunction with your regular heating system can save you up to 50 percent of your energy costs.

Talk to the company that you plan on having install your solar system and see if a sun tracker is a good fit for your system. Sun trackers use very little energy and will maximize the amount of power your system can produce. If you have the space and resources, a sun tracking system can help you maximize your energy production.

You have taken a good first step by reading more about solar energy and how it can benefit you. Now, it’s time to devise a plan to implement solar energy in your home or business so that you can realize those benefits further. Keep in mind what you’ve read so that you can get started.…

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